Left, Head most likely of Sargon of Akkad. Right, King Sargon II. The city took advantage of its location at the convergence of major trade routes by trading with Anatolia. Tin from the western part of Iran and local textiles were exchanged for copper of that region. Thousands of clay tablets from the site of Kultepe in modern day Turkey provide details about the activities of the merchants of Assur in Anatolia. Assur became even more prominent when it was chosen by Shamshi-Adad I, a ruler of the Old Assyrian Empire, as his capital. Compared to the other major cities of the Assyrians, such as Nineveh and Nimrud, Assur was smaller and less strategically placed. In later times, when the Assyrians moved their capital to other cities, Assur retained its role as a significant religious center for them. Although the Assyrian Empire came to an end during the final years of the 7 th century BC, Assur continued to be occupied. It served as the seat of a semi-autonomous governor during the Parthian period.

Historical Background, Conservation and Renewal

Assyrian Church Customs, p. Friday, June 02, at Betrothal and the Blessing in the church. When the young couple are in love or when the parents have made a match, first the parents of the bridegroom will send to the bride’s house, “On such and such a day we will come for the betrothal.

ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA I. Assyria 1. Natural features and ly speaking, Assyria was a small district bounded on the N. and E. by the mountains of Armenia and Kurdistan, on the W. by the Tigris, on the S. by the Upper Zab.

See Article History Mesopotamian art and architecture, the art and architecture of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations. The name Mesopotamia has been used with varying connotations by ancient writers. If, for convenience, it is to be considered synonymous with the modern state of Iraq , it can be seen in terms of two fairly well-defined provinces: This geographic division of the area is reflected in the history of its cultural development from the earliest times.

The first traces of settled communities are found in the northern region and date from the mid-6th millennium bce, a period that archaeologists associate with the transition from a Neolithic to a Chalcolithic age. It is of some importance that this period also corresponds to the earliest use of painted ornament on pottery vessels, since the designs used for this purpose are the most reliable criteria by which ethnological groupings and migratory movements can be distinguished.

Archaeologically, such groupings are, for the most part, arbitrarily named after the site at which traces of them were first found, and the same names are sometimes attributed to the prehistoric periods during which they were predominant.


Then philosophy migrated from every direction to Athens itself, at the center, the wealthiest commercial power and the most famous democracy of the time [ note ]. Socrates, although uninterested in wealth himself, nevertheless was a creature of the marketplace, where there were always people to meet and where he could, in effect, bargain over definitions rather than over prices. Similarly, although Socrates avoided participation in democratic politics, it is hard to imagine his idiosyncratic individualism, and the uncompromising self-assertion of his defense speech, without either wealth or birth to justify his privileges, occurring in any other political context.

If a commercial democracy like Athens provided the social and intellectual context that fostered the development of philosophy, we might expect that philosophy would not occur in the kind of Greek city that was neither commercial nor democratic.

This ancient Assyrian archive, dating from around 1, BC, finally confessed the city’s identity. A succession of empires built, conquered, rebuilt, and abandoned this site through antiquity.

Assyrian and Babylonian culture. Babylonian and Assyrian dress by Horst Kohler Babylonian and Assyrian dress, although simple in cut, like that with which we have hitherto dealt, had reached a high degree of excellence in respect of material and trimming. The Babylonian Empire about B. National costumes of Assyria and Babylonia The national dress both in Assyria and in Babylonia was a shirt with short, tight sleeves, cut very like the Egyptian kalasiris.

This was the sole garment of the lower orders for both sexes. Some wore it with and some without a girdle Fig. Even during the time when the national prosperity was at its height the slaves of the nobles had no other dress than this, and, in their case, it was only long enough to reach to the knee. Men of the higher orders also wore this short-sleeved shirt, but with them it reached to the feet. Even the monarch wore this costume, and, in addition to it, on ceremonial occasions he put on a cloak-like over garment, whose shape and trimming underwent many changes as time went on.

Assyro-Babylonian Royal Robe In its earliest form this garment resembled the shoulder-cape that was from primitive times worn by the nobles of the various peoples including the Aamu and Ribu inhabiting Western Asia.


Over the centuries, many Bible critics, minimalists and mythicists have asserted that much of the Old Testament constitutes not factual history but a rehash of ancient myths and traditions dating to before the founding of the Jewish kingdom. Although biblical scholarship differs, it is widely accepted that the Hebrew Bible was being assembled around the same time as this treaty, the seventh century BC. He was not necessarily saying the Hebrews copied the Assyrian text, substituting their own story about how God liberated them from slavery in Egypt on the condition that they worship only Him and follow His commandments.

But it will be interesting for scholars to have this parallel document.

* A quote from a Assyrian man I worked for at his liquor store, “the key to success is not only working hard, but working smart.” **A quote from my Assyrian friend regarding dating/marrying, “if you’re not Assyrian, you don’t have a chance with a Assyrian.”.

History[ edit ] The Assyrian Church of the East considers itself as the continuation of the Church of the East , a church that originally developed among the Assyrians during the first century AD in Assyria , Upper Mesopotamia and northwestern Persia today’s northern Iraq , southeast Turkey , northeast Syria and northwestern Iran to the east of the Byzantine Empire — areas where the Assyrian people spoke Assyrian language the Eastern Dialect.

Saint Peter , chief of the apostles, added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the See at Babylon in the earliest days of the church when stating, “The elect church which is in Babylon, salutes you; and Mark, my son. During the entire period, one of the main questions of dispute was the union with the Catholic Church. Ultimately, pro-Catholic branches were consolidated as the Chaldean Catholic Church , while traditional branches were consolidated as the Assyrian Church of the East.

Church of the East and Schism of During the patriarchal tenure of Shemon VII Ishoyahb — , who resided in the ancient Rabban Hormizd Monastery near Alqosh , an internal dissent occurred over several issues, including the question of hereditary succession to the patriarchal throne, and the question of union with the Catholic Church. By that time, Franciscan missionaries had already gained some influence over several local communities, [10] and they took an active role in organizing the opposition to the current patriarch.

By the end of , pro-Catholic party was organized in Mosul under the leadership of priest Yohannan Sulaqa , [11] who decided to legitimize his position by traveling to Rome and seeking confirmation by Pope Julius III —

Historical Background to Greek Philosophy

Annual celebrations[ edit ] Throughout the years, Assyrians celebrate many different kinds of traditions within their communities, with the majority of the traditions being tied to religion some way. Some include feasts Syriac: Some of these traditions have been practiced by the Assyrians for well over 1, years. Premta d’Simele; Martyr’s Day[ edit ] Main article: Premta d-Simele was the first of many massacres committed by the Iraqi government during the systematic targeting of Assyrian of Northern Iraq in August The killing spree that continued among 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts, led to the deaths of an estimated 3, Assyrians.

The historical setting of Jonah is the Assyrian era of the 8th century BC, but many scholars place the actual writing of the book in the middle fifth century BC, shortly after Nehemiah’s reforms. This suggests that the book uses much older traditions from the Assyrian era as a means to address a different set of problems in the post-exilic.

Assyrian Rituals of Life-Cycle Events Yoab Benjamin Historical Background, Conservation and Renewal Much as a common language links all Assyrians together, Assyrian customs, even if they have been greatly modified over time, provide a cultural link between Assyrians around the world. At least to some extent, the rituals and religious rites that accompany life’s milestones — primarily birth, marriage or death -represent what it means to be Assyrian.

Although their origins are often difficult to trace, the rituals practiced by contemporary Assyrians are perhaps as old as the days of ancient Assyria, and have been treasured and guarded through the centuries. These ancestral traditions may be observed out of respect for the older generation, but they also represent wisdom and moral values, and perhaps Assyrian culture itself. Thus, many of the practices remain deeply ingrained in the lives of Assyrians, and are often regarded as intrinsic to the continued existence of the Assyrian lifestyle.

Nevertheless, some Assyrian customs have not survived over time. Certain social practices which were widespread as recently as the early ‘s have since been ignored or forgotten. At least partly this was due to the aftermath of the First World War, in which Assyrian society was largely transformed from agricultural to urban. Assyrian rituals have also been influenced by the Moslem cultures they have had to live with, whether Arab, Persian, Turkish or Kurdish. Assyrians have acquired some of the customs of these cultures; at the same time, Moslem governments have sometimes restricted Assyrian practices.

Modern times have also substantially altered tradition among both rural and urban Assyrians.

Iraq Guide

He mounted several successful military campaigns against the Babylonians, Syrians, and many others. Few could stand in the way of the Assyrian expansion. After toppling the Babylonian Empire, the Assyrians conquered the Israelites, the Phoenicians, and even parts of the mighty Egyptian Empire. In the city of Asshur he kept a hunting park in which to prey on animals.

The Assyrian settlements in Iran, meanwhile, are of much earlier periods dating to pre-Christianity. For some two millennia, the Assyrians have continued to form ethnic clusters confined to southern Turkey, northern Syria, northern Iraq, and northwestern Iran.

Northern Mesopotamia, generally known as Assyria, followed a different developmental path than the apparent cultural unity that began during the Ubaid period in the south. A key difference is that Assyria had sufficient rainfall for agriculture, and irrigation was needed only for large plantations. The north also enjoyed an ample supply of building stone, and the area was close to the metal and mineral resources of Anatolia.

To the north and east, in the mountainous area today known as Iraqi Kurdistan, heavy forests in ancient times yielded ample game and timber, which fueled the stoves for baking bread , kilns for making pottery and furnaces for refining metals and making weapons that helped build an empire. Politically, this area alternated between southern domination and independence in the third millennium.

The Assyrian King list describes the first rulers in this area as dwelling in tents, i. While northern Mesopotamia was under the control of the Akkadian and Ur III empires, after the collapse of the latter, Assyria went its own way. Scientific excavation at Kul Tepe, ancient Kanesh, has yielded more than texts identifying the presence of an Assyrian trading colony, which imported finished textiles and lead to trade for copper ores, sometimes in shipments of up to five tons.

The fact that these were Assyrians is known only from the texts, written in Assyrian a dialect of Akkadian cuneiform. Had most of these texts not been excavated in situ, the presence of the colonists would not have been known, as the material culture and pottery are local. Probably this karum, or merchant colony, which followed its own laws and municipal organization, was under the protection of a foreign king.

The trading colony ended in a time of confusion, with the rise of the Indo-European Hittites into Anatolia. The Amorites also moved in, with Assyria falling under control of the Amorite chieftain, Shamsi-Adad, who established a dynasty and was unusually energetic and politically canny, installing his sons as puppet rulers at Mari and Ekallatm.

Assyrian singles. Cupid’s Arrow Launches an Assyrian Dating Site for Assyria……

By Maunris Potential website members will need to supply basic information, including gender and location, and then select a user name to begin the simple registration process. The website is now live at AssyrianCupid. Assyrians are a distinct ethnic group whose origins come from ancient Mesopotamia. As the creators of the new website explain, “The Assyrian culture is rich and vibrant, representing an extraordinarily special way of life, and since Assyrians may live in virtually any part of the world today, we want to make it truly easy for them to reach out to others who share this special history and culture.

The earliest Neolithic sites in Assyria belonged to the Jarmo culture c. BC and Tell Hassuna, the centre of the Hassuna culture, c. BC. The history of Assyria begins with the formation of the city of Assur perhaps as early as the 25th century BC.

Why the Bible Cannot be the Word of God. Did Moses “write” the Exodus account or someone else, in other words is the Exodus an eye-witness account of the events? Obviously someone else is writing about Moses and describing his activities Cf. The Philistines are portrayed as being in Canaan in the days of Abraham circa B. Archaeology has established that the Philistines are the Pelest of Ramesside era records and they did not settle in Canaan until circa B. Catholic Exodus date or B.

Establishing the date “when” the Exodus account was written in the Holy Bible. The archaeological excavations revealed that some of the sites were in existence only in the 7th century B. How “reliable” is the Exodus account?

Assyrian culture

March 28, Courtesy of Goran M. Amin Construction workers accidentally discovered a vaulted tomb dating back to the time of the Assyrian Empire in Erbil, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. Ten skeletons were also found at the site. Inside the tomb, which was constructed with baked bricks, archaeologists discovered three ceramic sarcophagi holding two skeletons. Eight other skeletons were found on the ground around the tomb, said Goran M.

Scribal Culture in the Ancient Near East. James D. Moore Brandeis University. It is primarily through the minds of scribes that we understand the biblical world and the ancient Near East (ANE). This thematic guide is designed to introduce the reader to the topic of scribal culture using the .

Mounted by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Assyria to Iberia traces the spread of writing, commerce, art, religion – and war – from Mesopotamia, the “land between the rivers” to distant shores as far away as Iberia, modern-day Spain. Assyria to Iberia highlights the role of two remarkable realms. The Phoenician city-states of Tyre and Sidon, located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in modern-day Lebanon and Syria, are given pride of place in the exhibition.

But these merchant-adventurers share the stage with the menacing Assyrian Empire that eventually conquered the Middle East from Egypt to the Persian Gulf. The timeline of the exhibit extends from the collapse of Bronze Age civilization around B. Among the first major works of art in the exhibit, a statue from the British Museum conveys the Bible’s fearful estimation of the Assyrians.

The image is of Ashurnasirpal II B. His statue, a rare example of a full-bodied sculpture rather than bas relief, projects the image of inhumanity that the Assyrians carefully cultivated. Predatory eyes, an implacable, resolute stance, hands gripping weapons of war – a sickle and a mace – these were the attributes of a model Assyrian monarch. Statue of Ashurnasirpal II The inscription on the king’s tunic, below his battlement-shaped beard, proclaims Ashurnasirpal II as “great king, strong king, king of the universe, king of Assyria